On December 8, 2016, Michigan signed into law two bills that allow the creation of Domestic Asset Protection Trusts (DAPT). The law goes into effect on March 8, 2017. Michigan is now the seventeenth state to allow such trusts.
A DAPT is an irrevocable trust that protects the assets of the person who sets up the trust from the usual claims that apply to trusts. The person who creates the trust, called the "Grantor", transfers a portion of his or her assets into the trust. The Grantor is typically a lifetime beneficiary of the trust. The Grantor can also retain decision-making authority over the administration of the trust. The assets in the DAPT are not subject to the Grantor’s creditors, even though the Grantor is a beneficiary. Moreover, under recent IRS rulings, if drafted properly, the assets in a DAPT are not included in the Grantor’s Gross Estate for Federal Estate Tax purposes.
The creditor protection aspect of the law with respect to DAPTs is quite lenient. The law provides that the Grantor’s creditors may not attack assets transferred to the DAPT upon expiration of a two-year period, which begins with the date the assets are transferred to the Trust. There are only a few exceptions to this protection, including instances of fraudulent transfers and bankruptcy.
Practical Uses for a DAPT
Adult Child Needing Protection
The first situation where a DAPT is useful is one in which a person’s adult child needs to be financially supported but it is not desirable to make out-right gifts to the child annually. Circumstances that could make out-right gifts undesirable include if the child is involved in bankruptcy, insolvency, divorce, child support issues, judgments against the child, student loan default, or an IRS Federal Tax Lien.
The DAPT can be set up so that funds are available to support the child, enable the purchase of a house for the child’s use, etc., but not subject the assets or income to risk of loss if placed directly in the hands and ownership of the child.
Reducing Federal Estate Tax
A second situation where a DAPT will be useful is where the Grantor needs to reduce the size of his or her estate for Federal Estate Tax Purposes. The use of a DAPT will allow the Grantor to shift an amount of assets into the DAPT to reduce his or her Federal Estate Tax below the Federal Estate Tax dollar exclusion, thus eliminating any Federal Estate Tax at his or her passing.
Despite the benefits of the DAPT to persons in situations such as those described above, care should be taken to consider the Capital Gain Tax consequences when planning a Federal Estate Tax Reduction DAPT. The IRS may take the position that the Grantor has “gifted” the capital gain tax to the beneficiaries. This is known as carryover tax basis. If assets are transferred at death, the Capital Gain Tax is forgiven.
Overall, the Michigan DAPT can be a powerful tool in both estate planning and asset protection planning. Considering whether a DAPT is appropriate involves many considerations. Therefore, an attorney that specializes in estate planning and estate tax issues should be consulted to ensure a DAPT is appropriate for your situation.