Employment applications, employment agreements, and employee handbooks are sometimes neglected by business owners who hire employees.  When used in together, a properly drafted employment application, employment agreement, and employee handbook can be effective tools to protect the Company and shield the business owner from some of the risks associated with maintaining employees. 
 
Employment Applications
An Employment Application provides the key information on a prospective hire and grants authority to investigate the prospective hire’s credit, criminal, civil and employment background.  In addition, it sets forth the Company’s at-will employment policy and permits the Company to discharge the employee if he or she falsified information in the employment process based upon after-acquired evidence.

Employment and Engagement Agreements 
An employment or engagement agreement is a contract used to establish the rights and responsibilities of both a worker and the Company.  Properly drafted employment agreements can protect the Company by establishing and addressing the following:
 
  1. Whether the worker is at-will.
  2. The relationship between worker and employee.  Specifically, the agreement should define whether the worker is an employee or an independent contractor.  If a Company decides to classify a worker as an independent contractor, it is important that the terms of the engagement and the terms of the agreement meet specific requirements under the IRS guidelines that allow the worker to be classified as an independent contractor; 
  3. The responsibilities and duties of both the employer and the worker;
  4. The payment structure for the worker. The agreement should also clearly establish how commission is earned and paid, if applicable;
  5. The procedure for termination of employment or engagement by either employer or worker; and
  6. Appropriate, non-disclosure, nonappropriation, confidentiality, non-solicit and/or non-compete provisions and work made for hire should be included to protect proprietary information, current customers and prospects of the business, and protect the Company from predatory business practices.  
 
Employee Handbooks
Employee handbooks help to provide a strong basis for defining the relationship between the Company and its employees.  Employee handbooks can benefit a Company in the following ways:
 
  1. Provide an in-depth description of company policies and employee expectations beyond what is contained in the employment agreement;
  2. Address industry specific, applicable federal and state laws, and protect the Company and employees by  articulating that the Company will adhere to these laws and regulations; and 
  3.   Protect the company from potential disputes regarding the expectations of employees. 
 
Employment agreements and employee handbooks should be used together to establish employee expectations, maintain employer/employee relations, and to protect the Company and its employees.  An effective employment agreement often references the employee handbook or incorporates the handbook as part of the agreement by reference. 

Agreements and handbooks should always be specialized based on the type of business, the types of employees/independent contractors, and the culture and expectations of the company.  Therefore, we do not recommend using the internet to find a generic employment application, contract or handbook. Instead, working with qualified professionals such as a business law firm and a human resources firm ensures that the agreements and handbook are drafted to meet each specific business’ legal and human resources needs.  When properly drafted, used, and upheld, these documents can protect the business from potential issues with current and former employees.  
 
 

Franchising is a business model that companies use to expand their brand or system. If a company (the “franchisor”) is franchising to expand, it packages and sells its business concept – with varying degrees of support – to individuals (“the franchisees”).  The franchisees, in turn, initiate the franchise business and pay a franchise fee and royalties to the franchisor. The franchisor will have detailed written disclosures and contracts it uses to engage franchisees who wish to buy into the system.
 
During and immediately following the Great Recession, many people have concluded that they want to own and run their own business. This stems, in part, from individuals who were formerly employees who wish to have more control over their future. The workplace became, and to some degree still is, unstable due to a variety of forces, some of which are cultural.
 
Buying a franchise is a life decision that involves a variety of important factors including, but not limited to, suitability, financial, and legal issues. The key legal issues in considering whether or not to buy a franchise include:
 
1.             The “legal” and business reputation of the franchisor.
 
-       How has the franchisor dealt with franchisees in legal disputes?
-       Has the franchisor generally been compromise or combat oriented?
-      Talk to and visit recent franchisees to inquire into their experience with the franchisor.
 
A good legal and business workup on the franchisor will reveal much, which is important in advance of paying a significant sum of $100,000 or more for a franchise.
 
2.      Discover all the hidden costs, the franchisee’s finances and financial commitments,   understand the market, and the competition in your local area.
 
-       Is it a business which is easy or more difficult for others to enter?
-   Conduct thorough due diligence of the franchise you are looking to purchase, so you’re able to make an informed business decision.
 
3.             Know the franchise agreement.
 
-       Your franchise agreement will have a big impact on whether or not your franchise succeeds.
-       You should know how it’s drafted and whether it contains an exit opportunity.
-   You should know the proper disclosures, any territorial restrictions, fees, and obligations you have as a franchisee.
-        You should know what happens if there’s a breach of contract and your recourse for misrepresentations or failures on the part of the franchisor to provide support.
 
4.              What happens to your franchise if the franchisor is acquired by another company?
 
-       Can the acquiring company change the name of your business without your permission?
-       Who pays for all of the costs and lost business traction that results from a name change?
 
5.             Can you sell your franchise to a third party without undue restriction?
 
 
A franchise may be a good choice for some but not others. A thorough investigation will help you to sort through the issues and risks in relation to your own situation.

Most businesses have important, confidential business information that needs to be protected.  This includes customer information, pricing, trade secrets, business practices, work product, copyrights, trademarks, service-marks, and other intellectual property and proprietary information.  There are many, everyday situations in which this information is shared, including with employees, independent contractors, distributors, and manufacturers.  Confidential business information is also shared during the process of buying or selling a business.  Often, such information is shared without realizing the dangers associated with its dissemination. 
 
Dangers of sharing confidential information
 
Employers expose much of their confidential information to their employees without hesitation.  Most of the time, it is imperative to the operation of the employer’s business to do so.  This is also true regarding pricing and business practices. Unfortunately, an employee who leaves the business may attempt to take this information to a competitor and use it against his or her former employer.  The competing business may then use this information to try to lure customers away from the business owned by the former employer, or for another predatory business practice.  Another danger is sharing too much confidential information when exploring the sale or purchase of a business.  A competitor may pretend like it is interested in acquiring a business simply for the fact that it may obtain proprietary information to use in its own business in the process.
 
Trademarks, service marks and branding are pieces of information that are used every day.  Businesses use these marketing tools to build the goodwill of their business.  Because this information is shared so freely, it is most vulnerable to being stolen.  If not properly protected, the livelihood of the business can be copied in an instant and used by a competitor to confuse and take customers.
 
Another relationship that leads to the sharing of proprietary information is when a business works with a manufacturer and/or a distributor.  Important trade secrets like recipes, packaging, and labeling are shared with the manufacturer or distributor out of necessity.  Without the proper safeguards in place, there is nothing that prevents a manufacturer or distributor from sharing this confidential business information with others.
 
Protections
There are certain steps that businesses must take in order to protect valuable confidential information.  A lot of these protections are encompassed in specialized and specific agreements, including:
 
  1. Non-disclosure agreements;
  2. Employee agreements;
  3. Independent contractor agreements;
  4. Licensing agreements;
  5. Purchase agreements;
  6. Consulting agreements;
  7. Confidentiality agreements;
  8. Non-appropriation agreements;
  9. Non-compete agreements; and
  10. Non-solicitation agreements.
 
Most of these agreements can either be freestanding or used in conjunction with one another.  Often, specialized clauses encompassing one or more of these ideas are contained within a single agreement.  For example, an employer’s agreement with its employees will often include non-compete or non-solicitation covenants, as well as non-appropriation and confidentiality covenants.
 
In addition to having these protective agreements in place with employees, independent contractors, potential purchasers/buyers, manufacturers, distributors, etc., there are other precautions a business must take to protect its confidential and proprietary information.  These precautions include having a properly formed business entity and consistent upkeep of the company’s corporate documents, registering trademarks and service-marks at the state and/or federal level, and registering copyrights and patents with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
 
 
It is also very important to have these agreements and policies reviewed and updated frequently to ensure that the business is protected as the business environment evolves.  

Since its inception in 2009 by an unknown inventor operating under the alias Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin and other forms of virtual currency have gained significant ground as a valid payment option for consumers. For the uninitiated, Bitcoin is what is commonly referred to as a “cryptocurrency”, which operates on peer-to-peer software via the Internet and is created and held electronically, with the collective network taking the place of a central authority or bank to manage its transactions. With the rapid increase in e-commerce as a subset of total retail spending in domestic GDP in recent years, Bitcoin has gained viability; breaking away from its status as a mere topic of conversation for internet enthusiasts and tech gurus.  This positive press, however, has oftentimes been laced with skepticism and these cryptocurrencies still remain a topic of controversy. This is largely due to the recent use of the currency in online illegal activity such as the infamous drug trafficking scandal perpetuated by individuals via the Silk Road website. Despite the dark shadow that such activity has cast, Bitcoin can be an attractive alternative for small business owners who are looking to avoid the fees charged by credit card companies and desire to become more tech-friendly and hip to their customer base.
 
PROS
 
Cost
One of the most enticing benefits of Bitcoin as a small business owner is the ability to avoid the fees associated with credit card transactions. Bitcoin only requires a small fee (less than 1%) to pay people called “miners” who help run the Bitcoin network. The fee is only incurred by those who choose not to hold onto their Bitcoin, but rather to pay these “miners” to immediately convert the Bitcoins received into currency and deposit the funds into a bank account. When compared with the fees charged by credit card companies (an application fee, a surcharge every time a card is swiped, the cost of buying or leasing the equipment, and a percentage of total sales), Bitcoin looks very attractive to small business owners, especially low-volume businesses, as a way to retain more profit per transaction.
 
Speed
Bitcoin transactions are incredibly quick and can be completed in as little as 10 minutes. This is largely due to the absence of a bank as an intermediary, which speeds up the process of the transaction. Bitcoin is also held virtually and can be easily accessed through any device with an Internet connection by using a numeric “public key”. In addition, a business does not need to apply to start using Bitcoin. It merely has to download the necessary software to begin accepting the currency.

 
“Tech-effect”
Another advantage of Bitcoin is in the concept of virtual currency itself. A small business that accepts Bitcoin will be more tech savvy as a user of cutting-edge technology. While this may not impact the decisions of some small businesses to accept Bitcoin, the attention that can be gained from customers may be worth the effort.
 
CONS
 
Volatility
One downside to Bitcoin not being backed by any particular currency is that this makes its value increasingly volatile. Since the value of Bitcoin is not subject to interest rates and fluctuates on a daily basis, it largely derives its value from its use in transactions. Although the supply of Bitcoin is fixed, the currency would decline into worthlessness if people decided to stop using it. This risk is decreased, however, by the fact that businesses need not hold on to the Bitcoin they receive. They can convert it to their respective country’s currency at any time. Important to note, however, is that an unwillingness of users to hold on to their Bitcoin will inherently stymie its worth.

 
Reluctance of Large Companies To Accept Bitcoin
Although some members of the Fortune 500 have begun to accept Bitcoin as a method of payment, they do so by using a middleman to immediately convert that Bitcoin into US Dollars. Although the acceptance of Bitcoin by larger companies is a positive thing and a step in the right direction for the virtual currency, the current reluctance to take on the risk that holding Bitcoin represents is a sign that confidence in Bitcoin’s continuing success is not yet widespread.
 
Tax
The IRS has deemed that Bitcoin is property, rather than currency. As a result, US based businesses must report gains and losses on Bitcoin fluctuation as short term capital gains and losses. . At this point, a business owner would need to be meticulous in tracking their Bitcoin acquisitions and expenditures, tracking each transaction and the exchange rate for Bitcoin at that time.  Then, the business owner would provide this information to whomever prepares their taxes. Thus, although tax implications may be a somewhat daunting hurdle at the outset due to the relatively unknown nature of virtual currencies to a business owner, this process will surely become more routine as employers become comfortable and train their employees to account for these transactions.

Many people do not realize that there are multiple ways to own real property – or, real estate – together with another individual.  Each type of property ownership has different legal ramifications and the type of ownership is determined by the specific language on the deed transferring title to the property.   This article discusses the different types of property ownership and the legal implications of each type.   
 
Tenancy in Common
In Michigan, the statutory presumption is that if a deed does not specify a type of joint ownership, then the property is owned as tenants in common. Thus, if a deed says to Jane Smith and John Doe, without any language following it, it is presumed to be held as tenants in common.
 
Tenancy in common is an archaic type of ownership that allows each owner an undivided interest in the whole of the property, even if the percentage of interests are not equal  This means that each owner has the legal right to live in the property or to rent the property.  Problems with this type of ownership often occur if the owners do not agree on how to handle the use of the property.  Additionally, when one owner dies, the surviving owner does not automatically receive full title to the property.  Instead, the ownership interest of the deceased owner is passed to his or her heirs either through his or her estate plan or through probate.  This can potentially be very problematic for both the surviving owner and the new owner of the property interest.  If the joint owners cannot agree on how to handle or dispose of the property held as tenancy in common, the result will likely be an expensive and lengthy battle in court through a “partition action”.  This type of lawsuit seeks to divide the property interest through a sale of the property. The proceeds are divided between the joint owners based on their ownership percentages.    
 
Joint Tenancy with Rights of Survivorship
Joint tenancy with rights of survivorship is created by very specific language in the deed conveying title to the joint tenants.  Joint tenants with rights of survivorship must also acquire the property interest at the same time (through one deed) to create this type of ownership.  The main difference between joint tenancy and ownership as tenants in common is that with joint tenancy, if one owner dies, the surviving owner obtains 100% of the property ownership.  This type of ownership prevents the problems listed above by avoiding the transfer of a partial property interest.   
 
Tenancy by the Entirety
The final type of joint ownership of property in Michigan is only available to married couples.  Holding property in tenancy by the entirety comes with certain legal benefits and advantages.  First, tenancy by the entirety includes rights of survivorship for both parties, like joint tenancy with rights of survivorship.  Therefore, if one spouse dies, the other spouse continues to own the property as an individual but with a 100% interest in the property.  Additionally, tenancy by the entirety allows a married couple to own the property as a single legal entity.  The main benefit of this type of ownership is that creditors of an individual spouse may not attach and sell the interest of one of the spouses.  This also prevents a lien from being placed on the property if one spouse is sued as an individual and a judgment is obtained against that spouse. There may be exceptions to this, however, particularly when it comes to the IRS as a creditor.
 
It is important to realize that if an individual owns property and then marries, the marriage does not automatically create ownership as tenancy by the entirety.  If a couple purchases property and then marries, the marriage does not automatically create ownership as tenancy by the entirety. In both instances, they should meet with a qualified attorney to prepare and execute a new deed to themselves as husband and wife to create a tenancy by the entirety.
 
Conclusion
When individuals attempt to transfer property ownership on their own, either by sale, or to a family member, there may be unintended consequences on the type of property ownership that is created.  We recommend that individuals needing a property transfer work with qualified professionals to complete the transfer.  Even transfers through “for sale by owner transactions” should use a qualified title company and qualified attorney to complete the transaction in a way that suits the best interests of the property owners.